Liu YC, Wen XX, Teo E, Williams GP, Chan LN and Mehta JS
Transl Vis Sci Technol. 2018 Apr; 7(2): 15. Published online 2018 Mar 29. doi: 10.1167/tvst.7.2.15
Publication year: 2018



To compare the postoperative higher-order-aberrations (HOAs) after hyperopic small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE), hyperopic laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK), and lenticule implantation for correction of hyperopia.


Eighteen monkeys were divided to six groups: +2.00 D and +4.00 D hyperopic SMILE, +2.00 D and +4.00 D hyperopic LASIK (n = 6 eyes for each), and lenticule implantation with a −2.00 D and −4.00 D lenticule (n = 3 eyes for each). The corneal HOAs were evaluated preoperatively and 3-month postoperatively.


At 3-month postoperatively, the spherical aberrations significantly increased toward negative direction in all +4.00 D groups (all P < 0.05). There was a significant change toward more negative values in the third-order vertical coma in the SMILE +4.00 D and LASIK +4.00 D groups (P = 0.026 and P = 0.036, respectively). There were also significant changes in the third-order horizontal trefoil (P = 0.034) and oblique secondary astigmatism (P = 0.012) in the LASIK +4.00 D group. In the eyes that underwent +4.00 D lenticule implantation, the fourth-order horizontal quatrefoil significantly increased (P = 0.029). In low hyperopia correction (+2.00 D), treatment with lenticule implantation tended to have less changes in HOAs, compared to the other two groups.


In hyperopic SMILE, hyperopic LASIK or lenticule implantation surgery, significant induction of third- and fourth-order HOAs were seen in moderate hyperopia correction but not in low hyperopia correction. In low hyperopia treatment, lenticule implantation might offer a favorable trend in the aspect of HOAs.

Translational Relevance

The results provided the knowledge of surgically induced HOAs and understanding of the effects of surgery in different types of hyperopic correction.

Keywords: higher-order- aberrations, hyperopia, SMILE, LASIK, lenticule implantation