To compare the postoperative higher-order-aberrations (HOAs) after hyperopic small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE), hyperopic laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK), and lenticule implantation for correction of hyperopia.
Eighteen monkeys were divided to six groups: +2.00 D and +4.00 D hyperopic SMILE, +2.00 D and +4.00 D hyperopic LASIK (n = 6 eyes for each), and lenticule implantation with a −2.00 D and −4.00 D lenticule (n = 3 eyes for each). The corneal HOAs were evaluated preoperatively and 3-month postoperatively.
At 3-month postoperatively, the spherical aberrations significantly increased toward negative direction in all +4.00 D groups (all P < 0.05). There was a significant change toward more negative values in the third-order vertical coma in the SMILE +4.00 D and LASIK +4.00 D groups (P = 0.026 and P = 0.036, respectively). There were also significant changes in the third-order horizontal trefoil (P = 0.034) and oblique secondary astigmatism (P = 0.012) in the LASIK +4.00 D group. In the eyes that underwent +4.00 D lenticule implantation, the fourth-order horizontal quatrefoil significantly increased (P = 0.029). In low hyperopia correction (+2.00 D), treatment with lenticule implantation tended to have less changes in HOAs, compared to the other two groups.
In hyperopic SMILE, hyperopic LASIK or lenticule implantation surgery, significant induction of third- and fourth-order HOAs were seen in moderate hyperopia correction but not in low hyperopia correction. In low hyperopia treatment, lenticule implantation might offer a favorable trend in the aspect of HOAs.
The results provided the knowledge of surgically induced HOAs and understanding of the effects of surgery in different types of hyperopic correction.